Some of the subpages may provide substantial detail, while others simply present statements describing the situations. See also my “Maryland Discipline Study Shows Usual – But Misunderstood – Effects of Policies on Measures of Racial Disparity,” Gunpowder Gazette (Dec. 16, 2019), which discusses a study showing that general reductions in suspensions in Maryland schools between the 2008-09 and 2013-14 school years had been accompanied by an increase in the ratio of the statewide black suspension rate to the statewide white suspension rate, and that, during that period, 20 of the 23 Maryland school districts for which data on black and overall suspension rate reductions could be analyzed there occurred an increase in the ratio of the black suspension rate to suspension rate for other students. See also the Minnesota Disparities subpage regarding a study finding that in all 73 districts in Minnesota where the matter could be analyzed general reductions in suspensions were accompanied by increases in the ratio of the black suspension rate to the white suspension rate.
Also of note is a 2019 article in Educational Psychologist by Girvan et al., “Tail, Tusk, and
Trunk: What Different Metrics Reveal About Racial Disproportionality in School Discipline.” The article is noteworthy because it is by members of the Positive Behavioral Support and Intervention Community that has long promoted the belief that generally reducing suspensions will tend to reduce relative differences in suspensions. At the sixth and seventh pages, however, the article, while generally employing the reasoning of my “Race and Mortality Revisited,” Society (July/Aug. 2014), recognizes that generally reducing suspensions will tend to increase relative racial differences in suspensions while reducing absolute differences in such rates. This is one of the few instances where educational researches even recognized that it was possible for relative racial difference in rates of experiencing and outcome and absolute differences in rates of experiencing the outcome to change in opposite directions.
In October 2017, the Wisconsin Institute for Law & Liberty issued a study titled “Feds in the Classroom: The Impact of the Obama Administration’s Discipline Policy on Wisconsin Public Schools.” The study found (at 9) that during a period of general declines discipline rates in Milwaukee between the 2007-08 and 2015-16 school years, the black suspension rate fell by 51.0% while the Hispanic and white rates fell by 60.5% and 67.9%. These figures mean that the relative differences between black and white rates, black and Hispanic rates, and Hispanic and white rates all increased.
The study did find that for Wisconsin as a whole the Hispanic and black rates fell proportionately more than the white rate. But the study found that that larger statewide reduction for blacks was likely a function of the large declines in Milwaukee where blacks make up an especially high proportion of students. Possibly that explains as well the fact that the Hispanic decline was proportionately more than the white decline.
Pressures to reduce discipline rates (based on the mistaken belief that generally doing so will tend to reduce relative differences in discipline rates) are likely to be especially great in areas with comparatively large black representations among students. Thus, it is possible that some states will be observing larger proportionate reductions in black than white discipline rates (with corresponding reductions in relative differences) even though whites experience larger proportionate reductions in discipline rates in each district. So far, however, most reportage regarding general reduction in discipline rates have found increasing relative racial differences in discipline rates (as reflected in the first introductory paragraph).
Meanwhile in January 2018, it was reported that Milwaukee Public Schools entered into an agreement with the Department of Education aimed at reducing racial disparities. Typically such agreements will be based on the mistaken belief that generally reducing discipline rates will tend to reduce that above-mentioned (a) and (b).